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FOKUS 6 | Agustus 2009
Dan tubuh tropismu bertanya-tanya: cuaca apakah ini?
Nuraini Juliastuti
04 Agustus 2009


RASANYA, SAYA sudah terbiasa memakai jaket sejak usia SMP dan SMA. Tetapi terus terang saya sudah agak lupa, bagaimana asal muasal pemakaian jaket itu. Sepertinya kebiasaan memakai jaket ini tumbuh dan dipengaruhi oleh trend pembuatan kaos, jaket, jenis pakaian lain yang menunjukkan identitas kelompok anak muda yang pernah sangat populer di Indonesia pada 1990-an. Semasa kelas 2 SMA, saya sudah punya kaos kelas. Waktu kelas 3 SMA, saya punya jaket kelas. Beginilah jaket kelas itu: ia berbahan parasit, bagian dada dan punggung berwarna hijau kecoklatan, kedua lengan berwarna putih tulang. Di belakangnya bertuliskan sebaris kalimat berwarna perak: Masyarakat 3 I Jujur Penuh Ambisi Di mana-mana. Sampai sekarang saya tidak berhasil mengingat siapa yang mengusulkan singkatan itu, dan bagaimana seluruh teman sekelas—termasuk saya—bisa menyetujui kalimat bombastis itu tertera di jaket kami.

Tidak ada kesepakatan awal kapan sebaiknya jaket kelas itu dipakai, tapi biasanya ia dipakai di saat ada acara-acara sekolah, atau saat pulang dan pergi sekolah. Dalam kasus saya, karena sejak kelas 2 SMA saya sudah mulai memakai motor sendiri, saya selalu merasa butuh jaket untuk melindungi diri dari angin dan terik panas matahari.

Lahir dan besar di Surabaya yang terkenal dengan panggilan kota pelabuhan dan dikenal sebagai kota dengan cuaca yang panas, respons yang saya bangun terhadapnya adalah dengan melindungi badan dengan pakaian yang tertutup. Konsep ‘perlindungan atas badan’ ini sejalan dengan budaya baru memakai jaket kelas.

Jaket akhirnya menjadi bagian diri dan dijadikan kebiasaan berpakaian sehari-hari. Ia menjadi kostum luar yang harus dipakai. Tetapi karena masih bertumpu pada pemahaman bahwa jaket adalah sesuatu yang fungsional, maka jaket yang dipakai juga terbatas itu-itu saja. Baru setelah lulus SMA, mulai tumbuh kesadaran untuk mencocokkan jaket dengan pakaian lain yang dikenakan (kaos, hem, blus, celana). Sebagai anak sekolah di negeri yang mewajibkan pemakaian seragam dari TK sampai SMA, saat-saat memakai baju non-seragam di akhir pekan, atau biasa disebut dengan “baju bebas”, terasa sebagai kesempatan untuk mengekspresikan gaya pribadi setelah berhari-hari ‘terbelenggu’ dalam seragam. Kesadaran menjadi fashionable atau keinginan belajar menjadi seseorang dengan kesadaran berpakaian yang personal mungkin memang baru muncul setelah saya tidak lagi berseragam. Ditambah dengan faktor frekuensi ke luar rumah yang semakin tinggi, jaket menjadi bentuk pakaian yang dikoleksi. Jumlah jaket yang dimiliki menjadi semakin banyak.

Kebiasaan memakai jaket berkembang menjadi sesuatu yang ekstrem. Sensitivitas terhadap tebal-tipisnya bahan pakaian menjadi berkurang. Yang dipentingkan jika membeli jaket adalah: warna dan model. Dan karena sifat dasar penerimaan cuaca orang tropis pada dasarnya adalah ‘tahan panas’ (terbiasa terhadap panas), maka jaket dengan materi yang tebal tidak dirasakan sebagai persoalan. Rasa panas atau gerah yang ditimbulkan dari jaket tersebut juga tidak terlalu merisaukan. Sikap tidak peduli terhadap material bahan jaket ini juga merembes ke pakaian yang dipakai di balik jaket. Kaos dengan materi sedikit tebal, kerah tinggi, atau sweater sempat menjadi pakaian harian saya di pertengahan 1990-an sampai akhir 1990-an.

Berbeda dengan saya yang cenderung bersikap melawan iklim yang panas dengan konsep berpakaian yang bersifat total melindungi tubuh, meski dibesarkan di Yogyakarta yang juga beriklim gerah, Ani (33) cenderung menumbuhkan sikap yang penurut terhadap cuaca. Saya memaknai sikap penurut Ani ini secara sederhana, yaitu: tunduk terhadap kondisi iklim yang diterima. Jika dingin, pakailah pakaian yang tebal; sebaliknya, jika panas, pakailah pakaian yang tipis dan berbahan lembut.

Karena itu, Ani memandang jaket secara berbeda. Menurutnya: jaket itu adalah kostum yang dipakai untuk malam hari, dan berfungsi melindungi tubuh dari dingin. Pada siang hari, menurutnya, tidak ada alasan untuk memakai jaket. “Aku biasa berjalan jauh dan bersepeda motor tanpa jaketan”, katanya. Sedari kecil ia juga tidak punya tradisi berjaket. Dari cerita keluarganya, ia memang tidak pernah suka jika diminta untuk mengenakan jaket.

Sementara pada diri saya, jaket sudah bergerak dari mode pakaian yang berfungsi untuk melindungi kulit menjadi pakaian yang melengkapi diri dan membuat diri menjadi nyaman. Jaket itu menjadi item baju favorit karena ia sejalan dengan kebutuhan melindungi kulit dari sengatan terik matahari.

Tergarisbawahi dalam perlindungan sengatan terik matahari adalah ingin membuat kulit tetap putih, terang, dan tidak jadi hitam. Saya sendiri sebenarnya tidak terlalu terobsesi dengan menjadi putih, meski memang kadang ada rasa khawatir dan takut menghadapi komentar: “Kok kamu sekarang hitam”. Sementara Ani suka berkulit hitam. Bahkan ia kadang sengaja membuat kulitnya menjadi hitam kalau ke pantai. “Aku suka merasa terganggu kalau lihat orang ke pantai tapi malah memakai jaket dan penutup muka segala”.

Jaket juga, saya pikir, sejalan dengan kebijakan berpakaian pribadi yang memang tidak suka dengan baju-baju dengan lengan terbuka atau baju-baju dengan leher terbuka. Sikap terhadap tubuh itulah—yang mungkin dipengaruhi oleh ideologi agama, apa yang dianggap sopan dan tidak yang diajarkan oleh orang tua dan lingkungan, dan ideologi gaya hidup tertentu, misalnya—yang dirasakan punya peran besar untuk mengatur penampilan. Jaket, bagi diri saya, merupakan sesuatu yang membuat diri menjadi ‘komplet’.

Berbicara soal hubungan antara pakaian dengan nilai dan ideologi, respons paling jujur tentang jilbab, misalnya—jika ketidaksopanan dimaknai sebagai ketidaktertutupan bagian tubuh, maka pakaian muslim masuk dalam kategori pakaian yang sopan—tecermin dari ungkapan-ungkapan yang memang hanya muncul di jalanan dan ruang publik lain saat terjadi pertemuan fisik dengan mereka yang memutuskan untuk mengenakan jilbab atau cadar lengkap. Naik becak bersama kakak perempuan yang baru saja masuk kuliah di IPB (Institut Pertanian Bogor) pada 1990 dan memutuskan untuk memakai jilbab panjang, sapaan “Assalamualaikum, Mbak!” sering ditujukan kepadanya dari pengendara sepeda atau orang-orang yang nongkrong di jalanan yang kami lewati. Atau ungkapan semacam ini: “Apa mereka itu nggak panas, ya pakai cadar dan jubah panjang hitam-hitam kayak gitu? Apa mungkin mereka itu memasang kipas angin kecil di balik pakaian mereka?”

Ketika jilbab muncul dan memperkenalkan konsep penutupan tubuh yang nyaris total pada lanskap fesyen yang monoton—dalam arti selama ini menutupi bagian tubuh yang cenderung sama—ia menjadi sesuatu yang subversif, sesuatu yang mengganggu dan menggelitik orang untuk memunculkan komentar seperti tersebut di atas. Keyakinan terhadap agama bertabrakan dengan tanggapan realistis atas cuaca dan lingkungan fesyen yang selama ini berlaku.

Sebaliknya bagi Ani, karena dari awal jaket bukan merupakan kebutuhan dari pola berpakaian, maka ia tidak merasa terlalu terhubung dengannya. Malah baginya, jaket itu kurang sesuai dengan dirinya yang merasa selalu ingin tampil rapi. Jaket cukup mengganggu dan merepotkan karena ia cenderung merusak kerah hem atau blus yang dipakai, dan membuat lengan jadi tertekuk-tekuk. Jaket juga mengganggu bagi Ani karena ia tampil sebagai sesuatu yang menekan. Kata Ani, “Ia membuat tubuhku terasa semakin sesak. Mungkin ini sama dengan kebiasaanku yang tidak terlalu suka dengan sepatu dan kaos kaki”. Ia baru menemukan alasan paling tepat berjaket saat ia sedang mengenakan baju berbahan tipis atau bertekstur berlubang. Tetapi hal ini juga disebabkan karena ia memakai sepeda motor sebagai alat transportasi utama.

Transportasi adalah faktor yang menentukan pakaian yang dipakai. Pada tipe kendaraan terbuka macam sepeda atau sepeda motor, si pengendara menjadi objek berjalan yang harus siap dilihat oleh para pengendara, penghuni, dan pengguna ruang publik yang lain. Berada dalam masyarakat di mana semua anggotanya terbiasa memberikan komentar atas apapun yang dilakukan orang lain, hal ini berarti kesiapan terhadap komentar dan reaksi bebas dari orang lain atas pakaian yang dikenakan. Ani berkata bahwa ia juga selalu merasa risih jika sedang ber-tanktop dan bersepeda di jalan dan menyaksikan tatapan mata tajam dari para pengendara dan pejalan kaki yang lewat berpapasan, ditambah dengan suitan-suitan. “Kalau naik sepeda motor sih mending, ‘kan larinya lebih kencang, tapi kalo naik sepeda onthel kan musti menanggung tatapan mata tajam lebih lama”. Tapi ia cuek saja dengan keadaan itu.

Pulang ke Indonesia pada 2007 setelah sempat bersekolah di Belanda dan penelitian di Afrika Selatan selama 18 bulan, Ani merasa jenis pakaian tanpa lengannya makin bertambah. Pengalamannya hidup di negara asing membuat sikap berpakaian mengalami penajaman. Di negara empat musim macam Belanda, ia jadi semakin sadar jenis fesyen macam apa yang harus dikenakan sesuai musim. Selama melakukan penelitian di Mamelodi Township, dekat Pretoria, ibukota Afrika Selatan, respons tubuhnya bahwa sinar terik matahari itu harus dihadapi dengan pakaian yang terbuka mengalami penajaman. “Selama di sana kadang memang aku memakai baju berlengan hanya semata-mata untuk melindungi diri dari debu, tapi selalu semua orang lantas berkomentar, ‘Ani, tolong lepas baju lengan panjangmu itu, aku merasa gerah hanya dengan melihatmu’. Dan memang di sana matahari bersinar sangat terik, jadi rasanya selalu gerah luarbiasa”.

Dulu saya tidak paham mengapa saya mendapat pertanyaan dari teman-teman yang selalu menatap saya heran tiap kali memakai jaket tertutup di hari panas, atau yang menyatakan keheranan terhadap para pengendara sepeda motor yang melengkapi diri mereka dengan pakaian perlindungan super lengkap: syal penutup muka, kacamata, kaos tangan. Tetapi pengalaman tinggal di negara beriklim sangat berbeda dengan Indonesia membuat saya paham atas keheranan itu.

Bagi orang asing yang singgah atau tinggal di Indonesia, sinar matahari mungkin merupakan berkah yang harus terus-menerus disyukuri. Bagi para penduduk alam tropis, sinar matahari direspons secara berbeda dan ditentukan oleh sikap terhadap pakaian, rasa panas, hangat, sejuk atau dingin, politik atas tubuh, sikap terhadap warna kulit, ideologi, juga pengalaman berbeda yang dihadapi ketika dihadapkan dengan perubahan cuaca yang kontras, yang ikut campur dalam menentukan penampilan seseorang. Inilah faktor-faktor yang memberikan penjelasan atas perbedaan strategi berpakaian di sebuah ruang cuaca yang sama.

Pulang dari Belanda setelah tinggal di sana selama satu tahun: gaya berpakaian saya mengalami perubahan. Jaket-jaket tebal, kaos, dan sweater tidak lagi saya gunakan. Saya memang tetap tidak bisa lepas dari konsep baju berlapis karena bagi saya tetap ada alasan untuk melapisi baju dalam. Sinar matahari kadang masih terlalu terik bagi kulit dan udara terlalu terpolusi dengan asap kendaraan yang lalu-lalang dan berpotensi membuat baju jadi bau knalpot. Hanya saja jaket kini digantikan oleh cardigan atau sweater berkancing di bagian depan yang tipis-tipis. Tapi yang pasti, memang sensitivitas terhadap bahan semakin bertambah.

Memikirkan kembali kebiasaan berpakaian selama ini, menurut saya selalu ada unsur ‘bersenang-senang’ (leisure) selain ‘kegunaan’ (utility) dalam berpakaian. Pada pengembangan gayanya, memakai syal—pakaian yang dianggap sesuatu yang tidak pada tempatnya itu—sering mengundang tertawaan dan ungkapan heran dari orang lain. Mungkin memang tanpa sadar ada semangat untuk sekadar mencoba dan merasakan pakaian-pakaian ‘yang lain’, ‘pakaian bergaya musim dingin’.

Berada di atas sepeda motor, berhenti di sebuah perhentian lampu merah di jalan raya yang ramai suatu pagi, mata saya menyapu para pengendara lain, sesama rekan penghuni ruang publik ini, dan memperhatikan kostum yang mereka kenakan: seorang perempuan muda yang mengenakan jaket secara terbalik, bagian punggung dipakai di bagian dada (mungkin dengan harapan supaya bagian lengan bisa secara maksimal menutupi punggung kedua tangan), mereka yang punya kebiasaan memegang setang sepeda motor dengan bagian tangan yang berwarna putih di depan (lagi-lagi dengan harapan supaya punggung tangan tidak terbakar sinar matahari), atau mereka yang mengenakan perlengkapan baju yang rumit saat berkendara motor (syal pelindung muka, kacamata—untuk melindungi mata dari debu, kaos tangan, dan jika malam tiba, kadang kacamata dan sarung tangan dilepas, tetapi diganti dengan perangkat lain yaitu rompi tahan angin). Jalanan adalah sebuah panggung yang secara terbuka menunjukkan wujud negosiasi para penghuni terhadap cuaca.


Yogyakarta, Juli 2009

NURAINI JULIASTUTI sempat kuliah Sosiologi di Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, sebelum akhirnya memutuskan untuk pindah dan belajar Ilmu Komunikasi di Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Bersama Antariksa pada 1999, ia mendirikan KUNCI Cultural Studies Center. Ia juga menulis tentang seni budaya di berbagai media seperti Tempo, Kompas, Inter-Asia Cultural Studies Journal, Karbonjournal.org, Jurnal Lebur, dan berbagai katalog seni rupa terbitan galeri lokal maupun luar negeri; membantu program penulisan seni "Aksara" di Yayasan Seni Cemeti; dan mengajar paruh waktu di Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Islam Indonesia. Pada 2007 ia pergi ke Belanda untuk belajar Contemporary Asian Studies di Universiteit van Amsterdam. Sekarang ia kembali ke Yogkarta dan sibuk mengerjakan proyek riset eksperimental tentang media dan teknologi untuk KUNCI.



Seorang perempuan dengan peralatan tempur berkendara lengkap di sudut Yogyakarta. Foto oleh Anang Saptoto


Nuraini Juliastuti, penulis, dengan sweater dan syal dalam sebuah wawancara radio.
Foto oleh Tovic Rahardja.


Ani Himawati dalam keseharian. Foto oleh Nuraini Juliastuti.

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