FOKUS 1 | Maret 2007

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FOKUS 1 | Maret 2007
Mencari model pembangunan perumahan yang berkelanjutan
Darrundono
11 Maret 2007


URBANISASI MERUPAKAN fenomena global yang berdampak pada timpangnya penyediaan perumahan dan pemukiman di kawasan perkotaan. Permintaan yang besar dan terjadi terus-menerus, tidak dapat dipenuhi oleh penyediaan. Pada kota-kota di negara-negara berkembang, masalahnya lebih rumit, karena pertumbuhan penduduk yang terjadi lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan yang terjadi di negara-negara maju. Kemampuan penyediaan perumahan secara formal, seperti real estat, dan perumahan dari pemerintah atau swasta, sangat terbatas dan hanya menyentuh golongan menengah ke atas. Sementara golongan berpendapatan rendah tak terjamah dan dibiarkan mencari jalan keluar sendiri. Dampaknya adalah tumbuh suburnya permukiman informal, yang di Indonesia lazim dinamakan kampung, dengan ciri padat, kumuh, jorok, tidak mengikuti aturan-aturan resmi, dan mayoritas penghuninya miskin.

Pada 1969, 60% (sedikitnya 3 juta jiwa) dari 4,8 juta penduduk Jakarta, hidup di permukiman kumuh. Menghadapi masalah itu, diperkenalkan proyek perbaikan kampung bernama Proyek Muhammad Husni Thamrin yang berlangsung dengan sukses sampai 1999. Paradigma terhadap kampung yang semula dianggap bermasalah, akhirnya memiliki jalan keluarnya; apa yang dinamakan Turner dengan urban sebagai solusi (urban as solution),[1] sebuah pendekatan yang melibatkan komunitas, sehingga model pembangunan ini dikenal sebagai pembangunan partisipatif.

Namun pada 1985, Pemerintah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota mulai mengubah kebijakan penyediaan perumahan dan permukiman dengan program peremajaan perkotaan dan membangun rumah susun. Mulai 1993, pembangunan rumah susun dilipatgandakan, dengan membongkar kawasan perumahan kumuh, lalu membangun rumah susun di atasnya. Pendekatan ini dikenal sebagai pembangunan teknokratik; tanpa melibatkan komunitas, dan tanpa studi yang komprehensif. Padahal, kampung-kampung di Jakarta pada awal 1970-an tumbuh sangat cepat, antara 100-150 hektar per tahun, di samping kampung-kampung padat yang sudah ada.[2] Dengan pertumbuhan seperti ini, kekurangan perumahan tidak mungkin dipenuhi dengan model penyediaan produk jadi.

Kebijakan pembangunan rumah susun ini lebih ditingkatkan lagi selama tahun 2000-2006, dengan menelan biaya tidak kurang dari 1 trilyun rupiah, dan masih diteruskan sampai sekarang. Hal ini mengundang pertanyaan: apakah dengan pendekatan teknokratik, kekumuhan dan kemiskinan dapat teratasi? Apakah kebijakan produk jadi (pasokan) ini dapat mengurangi kemiskinan sesuai dengan target 11 Millennium Development Goals? Apakah pendekatan ini sesuai dengan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan? Terdapat dua pilihan model pembangunan permukiman: partisipatif atau teknokratik.

Abad ke-21, abad perkotaan
Awal abad ke-21, tingkat urbanisasi dunia mencapai 50%, berarti separuh penduduk dunia berdiam di daerah perkotaan. Di Indonesia, yang tingkat urbanisasinya saat ini telah mencapai 42% dan diprediksi akan mencapai 50% pada 2010, kota-kota akan semakin padat dan sarat dengan masalah.

Pada 1976, Southwick telah menulis, “Sejak kelahiran Nabi Isa sampai abad ke-17, atau selama 1600 tahun, penduduk dunia berlipat dua kali, sedang perlipatan dua kali berikutnya memakan waktu 200 tahun, dan perlipatan dua kali berikutnya hanya dalam waktu 80 tahun. Perlipatan dua kali terakhir, dari 2 milyar ke 4 milyar, hanya memakan waktu 45 tahun, dan terjadi pada 1975. Perlipatan dua kali berikutnya diperkirakan terjadi dalam waktu 38 tahun, atau kira-kira pada tahun 2013.”[3] Prediksi Southwick ternyata benar, pertumbuhan penduduk dunia semakin cepat dan tak terelakkan.

Persoalan perkotaan kemudian timbul, selain kesenjangan antara permintaan dan penyediaan perumahan, karena tidak peka dan tidak ada kepedulian dari penentu kebijakan terhadap golongan miskin. Permukiman informal menjadi terlantar, terutama dalam penyediaan layanan perkotaan. “Pada umumnya, permukiman kumuh adalah produk kebijakan yang gagal, tata pemerintahan yang buruk, korupsi, peraturan yang berbelit-belit, pasar pertanahan yang tidak berfungsi, sistem keuangan yang tidak jelas, dan kemauan politik yang lemah.”[4]

Banyak pendapat tentang penyebab urbanisasi, terutama tentang migrasi. Douglass berpendapat bahwa perbedaan yang mencolok antara upah buruh di desa dan kota adalah salah satu penyebab mengalirnya penduduk pedesaan ke kota.[5] Tentang migrasi, De Soto berpendapat, “Tidak menjadi soal benar atau salah, mereka membuat keputusan untuk bermigrasi karena yakin bahwa migrasi akan memberi manfaat pada mereka”.[6] Organisasi Buruh Sedunia berpendapat bahwa kota memberi kesempatan kerja lebih banyak daripada desa. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kehadiran kaum migran yang katanya tidak bermodal dan tidak berpendidikan itu harus diterima sebagai kenyataan, karena akhirnya mereka dapat menyelesaikan persoalan mereka sendiri. Mereka membangun permukiman, menciptakan lapangan kerja, tanpa bantuan siapapun. Ironisnya, mereka seringkali menjadi korban kepicikan kebijakan, berupa pengusiran (dengan kemasan operasi yustisi) dan penggusuran. Pertimbangan sosial terlindas oleh pendekatan kekuatan Tramtib yang diskrimatif dalam kependudukan.


Kebijakan perbaikan kampung
Proyek Muhammad Husni Thamrin (MHT) berkembang dari 1969 sampai 1999. Badan-badan internasional, seperti Bank Dunia dan UN Habitat, menilainya sebagai proyek yang berhasil memperbaiki kualitas lingkungan kumuh dan kualitas hidup penghuninya, dengan biaya rendah. Tidak kurang dari 5,5 juta penduduk Jakarta menerima manfaat dari model pendekatan ini. Dalam lingkup nasional, setidaknya 15 juta penduduk yang diam di lebih dari 400 kota di Indonesia menerima manfaat serupa.

Sejak awal, misi proyek MHT adalah investasi kemanusiaan, atau perbaikan sosial (social betterment) menurut Melvin Mark, yang dijabarkan sebagai kebijakan/program sosial (social policy/program).[7] Proyek yang dicetuskan pada 1969, yang mengangkat nama baik kota Jakarta dan pemerintah Indonesia saat itu, sampai saat ini, oleh dunia manajemen perkotaan, masih dianggap sebagai proyek yang tepat dalam menangani masalah permukiman perkotaan. Keterbatasan dana, majemuknya masalah perkotaan, dan penduduk kota yang terus bertambah, merupakan tantangan yang dihadapi pada waktu itu, juga sampai saat ini. Proyek MHT tidak sekadar perbaikan fisik, melainkan seperti yang dikatakan oleh mantan Gubernur Ali Sadikin pada 1977, “Saya berpendapat bahwa kelompok penduduk yang terpaksa harus menempati perkampungan di sela-sela bagian kota yang terbangun rapi itu adalah justru warga kota yang lebih membutuhkan perhatian untuk menikmati hasil pembangunan”.[8]

Dimulainya proyek MHT pada 1969 merupakan tonggak sejarah perubahan dalam tata-ruang maupun manajemen perkotaan. Seperti peristiwa di Eropa Barat setelah revolusi industri, yaitu berubahnya asas perencanaan birokrasi (bureaucracy planning) ke perencanaan advokasi (advocacy planning), proyek MHT merupakan suatu pengakuan atas keberadaan permukiman kampung sebagai bagian dari rajutan perkotaan (urban fabric). Permukiman informal yang terbentuk itu, dilengkapi dengan layanan perkotaan (urban services), seperti prasarana, sarana, fasilitas sosial, dan fasilitas umum.

Pada 1980, proyek MHT meraih penghargaan dari Yayasan Aga Khan. Pada Pelita III, model pendekatan ini diangkat pemerintah pusat sebagai kebijakan nasional dalam menangani perumahan dan permukiman perkotaan. Pada Konferensi Habitat II di Istanbul, Turki pada 1996, proyek ini masih dianggap sebagai proyek yang tepat dalam menyelesaikan masalah permukiman di negara-negara berkembang. Juga dalam pembukaan Aliansi Kota (Cities Alliance) di Washington DC pada 1999, proyek ini pula yang masih disebut-sebut sebagai proyek yang dapat diandalkan. Sampai 2004, Wolfensohn, Presiden Bank Dunia, menyatakannya sebagai Praktik Global Terbaik. Sesuai dengan pendapat Sach,[9] untuk memperbaiki kekumuhan dan kemiskinan, layanan dasar perkotaan harus dibangun, terutama prasarana, sanitasi, dan air bersih. Dalam proyek MHT, komponen proyek dilengkapi dengan pembangunan fasilitas pendidikan (gedung sekolah dasar) dan fasilitas kesehatan (Puskesmas).


Perubahan kebijakan: Dari perbaikan kampung ke pembangunan rumah susun
Pada 1985, peremajaan perkotaan dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Tambora dan kemudian di Karang Anyar, setelah yang terakhir ini tertimpa musibah kebakaran. Tujuan pembangunan rumah susun adalah pengentasan kemiskinan dan kekumuhan. Apa yang terjadi kemudian, dalam waktu singkat, adalah munculnya pergeseran kelompok sasaran. Lebih daripada 90% penghuni rumah susun ternyata adalah golongan menengah, dan ini berarti pemerintah memberikan subsidi terus-menerus terhadap kelompok yang seharusnya tidak perlu dan tidak pantas mendapatkannya. Rumah susun kemudian menjadi monumen kekumuhan bertingkat, yang berarti tidak berkelanjutan dan memerlukan subsidi terus-menerus.

Dalam pelatihan-pelatihan manajemen perkotaan internasional, di manapun, selalu disarankan untuk tidak mengambil Singapura, Hong Kong, Korea Selatan, dan Israel, sebagai acuan dalam kebijakan perumahan dan permukiman, karena negara-negara itu memiliki pendapatan domestik bruto yang tinggi, selain ada keterbatasan lahan. Kondisi sosial, ekonomi, budaya, dan politik mereka berbeda dengan Indonesia.

Sejak 2000, tidak ada proyek MHT. Sebaliknya, pembangunan rumah susun terus digalakkan. Pada sektor swasta, pembangunan perumahan mewah bermunculan di segenap penjuru kota, menawarkan permukiman bernuansa modern, seakan-akan di dalam kota Jakarta tidak terdapat masalah permukiman. Terjadi kesenjangan yang mencolok, di mana di satu pihak permukiman formal dimanjakan, sedang permukiman informal diterlantarkan. “Sementara karya perancang dan arsitek diperuntukkan bagi golongan menengah dan tinggi, orang miskin dibiarkan memikirkan nasib mereka sendiri”.[10]


Pembangunan 1000 menara rumah susun
Sejak kunjungan Wakil Presiden Jusuf Kalla dengan para elite politik beberapa bulan lalu di Cengkareng, pencanangan pembangunan rumah susun mulai gencar dilakukan. Akan dibangun menara-menara rumah susun di setiap kota besar untuk Masyarakat Berpenghasilan Rendah, yang miskin dan berdiam di permukiman kumuh. Kota-kota akan tertata lebih rapi, tak ada permukiman kumuh, dan ini juga sekaligus berarti mengentaskan kemiskinan. Menara-menara itu akan dibangun di tengah kota, dekat dengan lapangan kerja, dan mengurangi kemacetan lalu lintas.

Prakarsa ini sekilas sangat menarik, tapi tidak didahului dengan penelitian atau pengamatan terhadap pengalaman membangun rumah susun. Kemungkinan juga, Wakil Presiden telah menerima informasi yang keliru, apalagi objek peninjauan ke Cengkareng itu dipusatkan pada rumah susun sumbangan Yayasan Budha Tzu Chi, sebuah sumbangan berupa rumah susun 1.100 unit, untuk memindahkan pemukim di Bantaran Kali Angke yang kumuh, dengan lahan milik Perumnas, dibangun oleh Yayasan Cinta Kasih, dan Pemprov DKI yang mengisinya dengan penghuni.

Setelah lebih daripada dua tahun dipindahkan, berdasarkan wawancara mendalam terhadap beberapa penghuni, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak kurang dari 40% penghuni menunggak pembayaran sewa selama tiga bulan. Sedangkan penghuni usia lanjut yang ditempatkan di lantai dasar karena tidak mampu, belum pernah membayar sewa sejak dipindahkan. Waktu ditanya bagaimana sebelumnya mereka dapat hidup di bantaran sungai, mereka menjawab bahwa ketika itu mereka memiliki beberapa kamar kosong di rumah mereka yang dapat disewakan. “Sekarang, apa yang dapat kami sewakan?”, keluh mereka. Untuk makan, mereka dapatkan dari belas kasih tetangga, di samping subsidi dari pengelola. Jumlah penyewa seperti mereka cukup banyak. Sebaliknya, suatu keluarga pensiunan PJKA dapat hidup dengan gembira, karena sewa yang murah, fasilitas yang cukup, dan uang sekolah anak sangat rendah dengan mendapatkan sepatu, seragam, tas, topi, buku-buku dengan cuma-cuma.

Hal ini menjelaskan bahwa memindahkan kaum miskin dari perumahan kumuh ke rumah susun tidak mengentaskan kemiskinan. Model pembangunan ini, yang lebih tepat dinamakan perumahan sosial (social housing), juga tidak berkelanjutan karena terjadi subsidi terus-menerus. Kalau model ini yang akan dipakai sebagai kebijakan pemerintah, maka asas pemerintah sebagai pemberdaya (enabler), akan kembali ke penyedia (provider). Ini berarti, lebih banyak dana yang harus disediakan. Sementara itu, apakah perumahan adalah satu-satunya masalah di perkotaan di Jakarta, atau di kota-kota lain?


Penutup
Memindahkan kelompok sasaran dari permukiman kampung ke permukiman teknokratik seperti rumah susun, hendaknya mempertimbangkan latar belakang sosial, ekonomi, dan budaya secara komprehensif, juga melibatkan calon penghuni rumah susun dalam proses perencanaan, yang selama ini cenderung dikesampingkan. Rancangan yang baik itu misalnya dengan melibatkan penumpang dalam ruang kemudi, arah dan tujuan dibahas bersama antara pengemudi dan penumpang. Sementara itu, perubahan sosial yang tak terelakkan pasti akan terjadi, karena yang dipindahkan bukanlah barang. Mereka berasal dari permukiman padat, dan terkadang kumuh, tapi penuh dengan nilai-nilai sosial, seperti keeratan dan keakraban. Almarhum Prof. Selo Soemardjan pernah berpendapat bahwa tinggal di rumah susun itu merasa jauh dari tetangga, sekalipun fisik berdekatan, dan tinggal di rumah susun tidak sebebas tinggal di permukiman kampung. Damajanti pernah menulis, “Kohesi sosial pada permukiman strata bawah, lebih kental dibandingkan dengan mereka yang diam di permukiman golongan menengah ke atas”.[11]

Pembangunan menara rumah susun di tengah kota memancing pertanyaan karena lahan di tengah kota sudah penuh dengan bangunan. Diperlukan pembebasan, bukan penggusuran, dengan nilai lahan yang mahal, sehingga biaya pembangunan membengkak. Kalau rumah susun ini hanya untuk golongan miskin, maka dampaknya, makin banyak rumah susun yang dibangun, akan menambah besarnya subsidi, sehingga ada sektor lain yang dikorbankan.

Dari berbagai penelitian, di antaranya oleh LPEM UI[12] dan Dinas Perumahan Pemprov DKI,[13] golongan miskin yang terbiasa hidup di permukiman padat belum dapat menerima hidup di rumah susun, karena mereka menerimanya sebagai transplantasi budaya luar. Apalagi membangun rumah susun yang lebih daripada lima lantai, memerlukan sarana komunikasi vertikal yang bukan hanya tangga, melainkan lift. Pengamatan pada beberapa rumah susun lebih daripada lima lantai yang dibangun oleh Pemprov DKI menunjukkan bahwa banyak lift yang sudah tidak berfungsi, atau pengguna belum siap untuk mempergunakan sarana yang modern.

Dari pengamatan tersebut, dan dari hasil penelitian saya pada 2006, demi modal sosial yang berperan dalam pembangunan model partisipatif, yang meningkatkan kualitas hidup dan berkelanjutan, disarankan untuk mempertimbangkan:
• Membangun rumah susun untuk golongan menengah ke atas, yang berdekatan dengan rumah susun untuk golongan miskin, sehingga terjadi subsidi silang.
• Menyediakan atau menciptakan lapangan kerja bagi golongan miskin yang berdekatan dengan rumah susun yang dibangun, atau dekat dengan jalur angkutan umum.
• Persiapan sosial yang matang sejak kelompok sasaran masih diam di permukiman kumuh, dengan menyediakan sedikitnya prasarana dasar, air bersih, dan sanitasi, sampai kualitas hidup mereka terangkat, dan mampu membayar sewa rumah susun. Setelah itu baru membongkar bangunan yang ada, dan dikembalikan ke fungsi atau peruntukan yang ada.
• Merencanakan bersama seluruh anggota petaruh, terutama calon penghuni, pemerintah, swasta, dan perguruan tinggi, dan LSM. Kalau pilihan pembangunan jatuh pada meremajakan kampung yang sudah tumbuh, disarankan melibatkan pihak swasta lokal, seperti pemilik rumah kontrakan, sebagai pemodal.
• Merancang permukiman yang secara fisik dapat mempertahankan modal sosial komunitas, sehingga model pembangunan ini berkelanjutan. Pendalaman tentang modal sosial ini ditingkatkan menjadi kontrak sosial bagi setiap anggota petaruh.
• Merancang suatu kawasan dengan tiga model pembangunan, yaitu gabungan antara perbaikan kampung, konsolidasi lahan, dan peremajaan. Model pertama, mempertahankan kampung yang sudah tumbuh dengan baik; model kedua, menata kawasan dengan mendirikan maisonet dua lantai, menggantikan rumah-rumah kumuh, dan model ketiga berupa peremajaan dengan membangun rumah susun. Apapun yang dipilih, pendekatan partisipatif yang bertumpu pada komunitas dengan melibatkan modal sosial, akan menghasilkan pembangunan berkelanjutan.

Jakarta, Februari 2006


DARRUNDONO lahir di Solo, 29 Juli 1934. Sejak 1974, ia menjadi sekretaris untuk Proyek Muhammad Husni Thamrin. Pada tahun 1980, ia mendapatkan penghargaan The Aga Khan Award for Architecture atas pengabdiannya melaksanakan proyek tersebut. Esai ini ditulis ulang berdasarkan disertasinya, yang membuatnya memperoleh gelar Doktor dalam Ilmu Lingkungan di Universitas Indonesia pada awal tahun 2007. Saat ini, ia menjadi Ketua Harian Komite Evaluasi Lingkungan Kota; suatu badan independen yang dibentuk oleh Pemprov DKI sebagai mitra kerja Gubernur, selain menjadi dosen Planologi dan Arsitektur di Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta.

 


 



Rumah susun Pejompongan, Jakarta, 2003. Foto koleksi ruangrupa.

Catatan kaki

 

[1] J. F. C, Turner, Housing by People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environment, Marion Boyars, London, 1976.
[2] World Bank, Report on Jakarta Kampung Improvement Program
, 1975.
[3] C.H. Southwick, Ecology and the Quality of Our Environment
, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1976.
[4]. UN Habitat, The Challenge of Slums
. Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, 2003.
[5]. Mike Douglass, Globalization. Mega-Urban Regions and The Environment in Asia
, 2005.
[6]. H. De Soto, Masih Ada Jalan Lain; revolusi di Negara Dunia Ketiga
, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, 1991.
[7]. Melvin Mark et al, Evaluation
. Jossey Bass A Wiley Company, San Francisco. 2000.
[8]. Pemerintah DKI Jakarta, Gita Jaya
, PT. Pangeran Djajakarta Offset, Jakarta, 1977.
[9]. J. Sach, The End of Poverty. (How We Can Make it Happen in Our Lifetime)
, Penguins Book Ltd. London, 2005.
[10]. H. Shirvani, The urban Design Process
, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1985.
[11]. L. Damajanti, Kehidupan Berorganisasi Sebagai Modal Sosial Komunitas Jakarta
, 2002.
[12]. LPEM UI, Penelitian Rumah Susun di Jakarta
, 1986.
[13]. Dinas Perumahan DKI, Studi Pengkajian Kemampuan Sosial Ekonomi Penghuni Rumah Susun Sewa Beli di Lima Lokasi
, 2001.



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