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FOKUS 2 | Mei 2007
Transportasi humanis
Bambang Susantono
11 Mei 2007


Aglomerasi perkotaan

Perkembangan kota-kota besar di Indonesia cenderung mekar ke segala arah. Ada ketidakcocokan geografis antara lokasi rumah tinggal dan lokasi kerja. Rumah tinggal yang terjangkau semakin jauh dari pusat-pusat kegiatan di kota sehingga penduduk dihadapkan pada perjalanan kerja yang cukup panjang. Jumlah perjalanan di Jabodetabek saat ini mendekati 30 juta perjalanan per hari. Dengan jumlah perjalanan sedemikian besar, kecepatan kendaraan rata-rata di Jabodetabek hanya sekitar 34,5 km per jam. Setiap hari lebih daripada 600.000 kendaraan dari Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, dan Bekasi (Bodetabek) berjalan ke pusat kota Jakarta dengan pola perjalanan yang konsentrik radial atau menuju ke tengah kota. Bila dibandingkan dengan data tahun 1985, peningkatan jumlah perjalanan dari Bodetabek ke Jakarta ini naik sekitar 10 kali lipat pada tahun ini. Di lain pihak, jumlah kendaraan di Jakarta dan sekitarnya sudah mencapai sekitar 5 juta dengan pertumbuhan sekitar 1.035 motor dan 269 mobil per bulan.

Dengan kecenderungan saat ini, apabila angkutan umum tidak dibenahi, akan semakin banyak penduduk melakukan perjalanannya dengan kendaraan pribadi, baik mobil ataupun sepeda motor. Kondisi Jakarta ini akan menuju macet total paling lama 10 tahun mendatang, suatu kondisi di mana sistem transportasi yang ada sudah tidak mampu lagi untuk mengalirkan lalulintas. Contoh situasi ini kita hadapi apabila Jakarta mengalami hujan lebat dan terjadi macet di mana-mana dengan sistem yang mengunci antara satu perempatan dan perempatan lainnya. Dengan posisi saling mengunci, lalulintas akan sulit bergerak dan semua kendaraan akan berhenti total.

Revitalisasi angkutan umum: mulai dari mana?
Jakarta memang sangat terlambat dalam menata sistem angkutan umum massalnya. Dulu, barometer kemacetan di Asia Tenggara adalah Bangkok dan Manila. Sekarang ini, kedua kota tersebut telah memiliki sistem angkutan umum massal seperti subway dan light rail train, yang secara konsisten terus dikembangkan untuk mengantisipasi kebutuhan lalulintas. Belajar dari pengalaman kedua kota ini, sebenarnya tidak ada kata ”terlambat”untuk membenahi transportasi perkotaan di Indonesia. Contoh lainnya yaitu kota Bogota di Kolombia yang begitu ruwetnya, yang kondisinya diperumit dengan keberadaan mafia obat bius dan sektor informalnya, toh masih dapat dibenahi dan kini memiliki salah satu sistem transportasi rujukan yang berkelas di dunia.. Untuk itu harus ada langkah awal dan langkah-langkah yang konsisten dalam memperbaiki sistem transportasi Jakarta. Langkah ini membutuhkan kepemimpinan dan partisipasi masyarakat yang sangat kuat.

Jakarta sebenarnya telah begitu banyak melakukan studi tentang transportasi. Dokumen terakhir yang sering diacu adalah Pola Transportasi Makro Jakarta dan juga Studi Integrated Transport Master Plan (SITRAMP) Jabodetabek. Pada akhirnya, suatu perencanaan hanya akan bermakna kalau bisa kita implementasikan. Ini berarti rencana pembenahan angkutan umum di DKI juga pada akhirnya akan menyentuh aspek institusi di mana regulator, penyedia jasa, dan para konsumen akan terlibat. Di sini Jakarta tidak dapat sendirian karena pola pergerakan transportasi Jakarta sebagian besar justru berasal dan bermuara di Bodetabek. Pengalaman SITRAMP JABODETABEK memperlihatkan bahwa masterplan transportasi regional tidak bisa diimplementasikan karena tidak adanya komitmen dari masing-masing pemerintah daerah untuk melaksanakan sistem transportasi regional. Jakarta tidak bisa sendirian dalam menyelesaikan masalah transportasi, demikian pula Bogor, Tangerang, Depok, dan Bekasi. Satu perjalanan di Jabodetabek tidak bisa dibatasi dengan batas-batas administratif. Untuk itu, harus ada platform bersama dari semua pemerintah daerah, dan setiap pemerintah daerah yang terlibat perlu melepaskan ego masing-masing, agar dapat mewujudkan satu sistem transportasi regional yang efisien.


Perekayasaan sosial angkutan umum massal
Di tengah-tengah semakin ruwetnya sistem transportasi dengan tumpang tindihnya trayek dan tidak adanya kontrol terhadap kualitas layanan, Pemerintah Provinsi Jakarta mencoba meluncurkan busway TransJakarta sebagai tulang punggung sistem angkutan umum massal perkotaan. Bagi para perencana transportasi, sistem busway TransJakarta merupakan perekayasaan sosial dalam angkutan umum. Sudah sejak lama transportasi perkotaan di Indonesia lupa akan keberadaan etika bertransportasi. Kebut-kebutan di jalan, tidak menghargai para pejalan kaki, tidak adanya karcis yang menyebabkan tidak pernah diketahuinya secara pasti jumlah penumpang angkutan umum, merupakan sedikit contoh betapa transportasi Indonesia telah kehilangan etikanya. Melalu sistem busway, penumpang mulai dituntun kembali untuk belajar antri dan tertib sewaktu naik-turun bis hanya di halte dan memakai karcis. Dalam sistem ini, bus yang diharapkan tiba di halte dalam interval waktu tertentu juga membuat para penumpang bisa merencanakan perjalanannya dengan lebih baik. Dengan beroperasinya sistem busway, tumpang tindih trayek yang terjadi juga mau tidak mau akan ditata ulang sehingga jelas mana yang angkutan umum jarak jauh dan pengumpan. Secara keseluruhan, sistem ini diharapkan dapat mewujudkan sistem transportasi yang andal, efisien, aman, dan nyaman, serta berbasis pada profesionalisme pengelolaan angkutan umum.

Masih banyak kelemahan yang ada dalam sistem busway; kekurangan yang paling banyak dikeluhkan adalah sistem pengumpan. Ini sangat menentukan kinerja sistem busway karena tanpa sistem pengumpan ini, para pengendara kendaraan pribadi yang menjadi target tidak akan naik busway. Kelemahan lain adalah kurangnya fasilitas perparkiran. Di negara-negara yang telah sukses melaksanakan busway, disediakan tempat parkir dengan biaya yang cukup terjangkau. Pengendara akan menghitung biaya parkir sebagai bagian dari ongkos transportasi secara keseluruhan. Kelemahan juga terdapat pada sistem tiket, yang seharusnya memberikan kemudahan transfer bagi para pengguna, jadi tidak perlu membeli tiket setiap kali naik bis pengumpan dan busway, cukup satu tiket dari asal ke tujuan. Di kemudian hari, tiket itu juga sedapat mungkin terintegrasi dengan moda lain seperti KA komuter. Biasanya juga dapat diberikan potongan harga tiket untuk mereka yang berlangganan bulanan dan tahunan, ataupun sistem tiket khusus Sabtu Minggu untuk rekreasi.


Monorel dan subway
Di samping mengembangkan busway, Pemprov Jakarta dengan bekerja sama dengan swasta akan mengembangkan sistem monorel. Proyek yang bernilai USD 650 juta dan memiliki panjang total sekitar 28 km ini memiliki dua jalur, yaitu timur-barat (Kampung Melayu-Mal Taman Anggrek) dan jalur lingkar yang menghubungkan CBD dan mall-mall di jantung kota.

Terdapat beberapa catatan untuk melihat kinerja monorel nantinya, yang pertama harus dilihat adalah pengumpan monorel, bagaimana para pengguna monorel bisa mencapai stasiun dan bagaimana mereka melanjutkan perjalanannya ke tujuan dari stasiun. Juga bagaimana transfer monorel ke moda lain, tidak hanya busway, tapi juga angkutan umum lainnya. Yang sangat perlu diperhatikan adalah titik-titik transfer monorel ke moda lainnya. Di titik-titik tersebut harus dibuat fasilitas bagi para pejalan kaki yang aman dan nyaman. Jangan lupa bahwa “berjalan” merupakan ”perekat” dari semua sistem transportasi. Apakah seseorang bermobil atau bermotor atau bersepeda, paling tidak awal dan akhirnya ia akan tetap berjalan. Pendeknya, integrasi monorel dengan sistem lain mutlak harus ada. Idealnya terdapat satu karcis yang memungkinkan penumpang berpindah dari monorel ke busway dengan mudah, aman, dan nyaman.

Hal lain yang harus juga diperhatikan adalah aspek keterjangkauannya. Tampaknya segmentasi yang akan disasar adalah kelas menengah ke atas, karena harga tiket rata-rata adalah Rp7.000,00. Ada kemungkinan juga investor akan mencoba konsep Transit Oriented Development (TOD) yaitu mengintegrasikan pengembangan properti dengan sistem transportasi. Jadi, mereka akan mencoba mengatur akses ke properti seperti gedung atau mall, termasuk memanfaatkan iklan-iklan sebagai tambahan pendapatan. Konsep ini cukup berhasil di Jepang, Hongkong, Singapura, dan juga dicoba di Kuala Lumpur.

Jakarta juga akan membangun subway dari Lebak Bulus ke Kota, dengan pembangunan tahap pertama adalah dari Lebak Bulus hingga Dukuh Atas sepanjang 14,5 km. Sistem ini tidak sepenuhnya berada di bawah tanah karena dari 12 stasiun yang direncanakan, hanya empat stasiun, dari Semanggi hingga Dukuh Atas, yang berada di dalam tanah. Total biaya sekitar Rp 8,8 trilyun dan berasal dari pinjaman lunak Pemerintah Jepang. Subway memang memiliki kapasitas angkut yang cukup besar, sekitar 50.000-70.000 penumpang per arah per jam. Namun, biaya yang dibutuhkannya pun sangat besar, sekitar (20-180) juta US dollar per kilometer. Bandingkan dengan busway yang memakan biaya (1-10) juta US dollar per kilometer. Di samping itu, membangun subway membutuhkan lebih daripada tiga tahun sedangkan untuk busway cukup satu-dua tahun per koridor.

Apapun sistem atau layanan transportasi yang ada, kata kuncinya adalah integrasi. Angkutan umum perkotaan harus terintegrasi dan memberikan opsi berkendaraan bagi warga di perkotaan. Pemerintah sebagai pembina sistem harus mampu menempatkan diri dan menemu-kenali layanan apa yang dibutuhkan masyarakat. Simulasi dan pemodelan sebaiknya dilakukan, sehingga pemerintah dapat memetakan bagaimana pergerakan barang dan manusia terjadi di suatu kota. Intinya, ini saatnya menata ulang sistem transportasi di Jabodetabek dengan menggunakan momentum busway dan monorel. Angkutan jarak jauh, menengah, dan pendek harus ditata ulang sehingga dapat menggambarkan totalitas sistem yang terintegrasi dan memberikan layanan aksesibilitas yang cukup baik. Program penataan angkutan umum di Bogota, Kolombia, misalnya, mencanangkan bahwa 85% dari total penduduk yang jumlahnya 7 juta orang, akan berada dalam radius 500 meter dari sistem busway Trans Millenio. Hal ini menjadikan penduduk Bogota memiliki tingkat aksesibilitas tinggi.


Akankah orang naik angkutan umum?
Seseorang secara alamiah akan memilih alat transportasinya berdasarkan kenyamanan, keamanan, keandalan, dan keterjangkauan. Banyak teori yang bisa menjelaskan fenomena ini, misalnya pilihan yang rasional dan perilaku manusia. Prof. Daniel Mc Fadden dari Universitas California Berkeley, yang memenangi hadiah Nobel dan merupakan ahli pilihan pemodelan, menyatakan bahwa ada banyak faktor yang dapat menyebabkan peralihan dari kendaraan pribadi ke angkutan umum. Secara umum terdapat dua faktor yaitu faktor penolak dengan membuat berkendaraan pribadi sangat mahal, dan faktor penarik dengan membuat angkutan umum aman, nyaman, andal, dan terjangkau. Di Singapura, untuk dapat memiliki kendaraan, seseorang harus mengikuti lelang kepemilikan kendaraan Certificate of Entitlement (COE) karena setiap tahunnya pemerintah mengeluarkan kuota kendaraan. Mereka yang menawar tertinggi adalah mereka yang dapat memiliki kendaraan bermotor. Pajak-pajak yang berhubungan dengan kendaraan ditingkatkan dan ongkos parkir dimahalkan. Di Jepang dan beberapa kota di negara maju, naik mobil ke kantor bisa sangat mahal karena biaya parkir yang sangat tinggi. Semua kebijakan memahalkan berkendaraan pribadi ini tentunya harus diimbangi dengan penyediaan layanan angkutan umum yang andal, aman, nyaman, efisien, dan terjangkau. Dalam hal ini, kesetaraan tetap terjaga dan aksesibilitas tetap terbuka karena publik diberikan pilihan, mau pakai yang mana dan dalam kondisi apa. Kalau misalnya ada pesta atau harus menjamu rekanan bisnis, mungkin hari itu seseorang akan memakai kendaraan pribadi, sedangkan di hari-hari biasa dia akan pakai angkutan umum untuk bekerja atau beraktivitas.

Dalam survei rumah tangga yang diselenggarakan oleh studi transportasi JICA SITRAMP 2003, penduduk di Jabodetabek paling memerhatikan masalah keamanan dalam memilih harus naik apa. Ini berarti persepsi publik adalah angkutan umum kita masih belum aman. Faktor berikutnya adalah faktor kenyamanan. Studi yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa S2 UI memperlihatkan bahwa para pekerja di koridor Thamrin-Sudirman mau membayar mahal untuk angkutan umum yang lebih nyaman dan aman. Dengan temuan ini, terdapat peluang bagi busway atau monorel di Jakarta untuk menawarkan angkutan yang lebih aman, nyaman, waktu tempuh yang cukup cepat, dan biaya yang terjangkau.


Kuncinya adalah akses, bukan mobilitas kendaraan
Penanggulangan kemacetan di perkotaan tidak dapat dilaksanakan dengan menerapkan kebijakan-kebijakan yang hanya bertumpu pada memperbesar panjang jalan semata. Penelitian Anthony Downs (1994) dan kompilasi dari berbagai studi yang dilakukan oleh Profesor Mark Hansen (2000) dari Universitas Kalifornia Berkeley, memperlihatkan bahwa penambahan jalan baru di tengah kota justru berpotensi membangkitkan lalu lintas yang lebih besar dan mengakibatkan kemacetan. Kunci mengurai kemacetan adalah menerapkan konsep aksesibilitas yaitu memberikan akses ke tujuan yang diinginkan, sedapat mungkin dengan meminimalkan perjalanan yang harus dilakukan. Inti dari konsep aksesibilitas adalah, pertama, mengurangi perjalanan yang tidak perlu dengan mendekatkan lokasi tempat bekerja, permukiman, belanja, atau rekreasi. Kedua, apabila perjalanan tidak terelakkan, sedapat mungkin perjalanan itu dilakukan dengan angkutan umum guna mengurangi jumlah kendaraan di jalan raya.
Profesor Robert Cervero, dalam bukunya The Transit Metropolis, memperlihatkan bahwa kota-kota yang berkembang dengan baik umumnya berangkat dari pengembangan tata kota yang terintegrasi dengan sistem transportasi. Pengembangan kota akan mengikuti arah jalur-jalur dari sistem angkutan umum massal yang dibangun. Pola pembangunan kota berbasis transportasi yang disebut dengan Transit Oriented Development (TOD) ini, terjadi antara lain di kota-kota Stockholm, Kopenhagen, Tokyo, dan Curitiba. Penelitian oleh East Asia Society of Transport Study (EASTS) pada 2005 memperlihatkan bahwa saat ini sedang berlangsung reorientasi pembangunan kota berbasis angkutan umum massal di kota-kota mega di Asia Timur seperti Seoul, Taipei, Bangkok, dan Manila. Hal ini terjadi karena ketidakinginan untuk mengulangi kesalahan masa lalu, ketika kemacetan lalulintas hampir selalu disikapi dengan usulan membangun jalan baru, yang pada akhirnya menambah kemacetan.


Penutup
Transportasi harus diletakkan pada khittahnya sebagai alat bantu dalam membangun kehidupan yang selaras, serasi, dan seimbang dengan lingkungannya. Transportasi perkotaan yang humanis pada hakikatnya bukan konsep yang baru. Shakespeare menyatakan “Apalah kota, bila bukan manusianya?” Pada akhirnya, sistem yang berbasis masyarakatlah yang harus diwujudkan. Kita harus memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat atas transportasi yang efisien dan berkeadilan. Untuk melakukannya, masyarakat harus menempatkan kendaraan pada posisinya sebagai bagian dari sistem transportasi yang lebih luas, di mana berkendaraan umum, bersepeda, dan berjalan kaki adalah pilihan alternatif yang bisa diambil.

Untuk mewujudkan sistem transportasi berbasis masyarakat, kita harus mengikutsertakan berbagai komponen masyarakat dalam penyelenggaraan transportasi. Partisipasi publik akan menjadi kunci dalam proses perencanaan, hingga operasi dan pemeliharaan. Agar tercipta partisipasi publik seluas mungkin, masyarakat harus memiliki akses terhadap berbagai informasi tentang perencanaan dan pengembangan transportasi. Melalui cara tersebut, masyarakat dapat secara aktif berpartisipasi dalam keseluruhan penyelenggaraan transportasi.

Jakarta, Mei 2007

BAMBANG SUSANTONO, Ph.D adalah Ketua Umum Masyarakat Transportasi Indonesia (2004-2007). Alumnus dari Jurusan Teknik Sipil ITB Bandung ini melanjutkan program pascasarjana di Universitas Kalifornia Berkeley dan menyelesaikan program MCP untuk perencanaan kota dan wilayah, MSCE untuk teknik transportasi, dan Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) di bidang perencanaan infrastruktur. Bambang Susantono antara lain telah bertugas sebagai Staf Ahli Menko Perekonomian (hingga saat ini), Sekretaris Tim Koordinasi Infrastruktur Pedesaan, dan Kepala Sekretariat Komite Kebijakan Percepatan Pembangunan Infrastruktur. Ia merupakan Anggota Dewan East Asia Society of Transportation Studies EASTS (berpusat in Tokyo, Jepang), dan Anggota Dewan SouthsouthNorth Foundation yang berpusat di Johanesburg, Afrika Selatan. Ia mengajar dan membimbing tesis di Program Pascasarjana Bidang Ilmu Teknik Universitas Indonesia.


Foto oleh Ardi Yunanto.


Komentar

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