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“Arsitektur yang Membodohkan”: sebuah usaha untuk mencerdaskan arsitektur?

Farid Rakun
22 Juni 2011


Pursal, Arsitektur yang Membodohkan
Bandung: CSS Publishing, 2010
191 + xii halaman
ISBN: 978-979-17433-7-2



Arsitektur, dalam perkembangannya, memang telah menjadi sebuah ilmu yang pelik. Dalam pengertian awam, arti kata ini disebut dengan baik oleh Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia sebagai:

ar.si.tek.tur
[n] (1) seni dan ilmu merancang serta membuat konstruksi bangunan, jembatan, dsb; (2) metode dan gaya rancangan suatu konstruksi bangunan


Namun, dalam pengertian para pelakunya sendiri, istilah ini amat sering diperdebatkan. Apakah memang arsitektur melulu dan hanya tentang bangunan? Bila memang lebih luas, di mana batasannya? Apa peran arsitek sebenarnya? Kepada siapakah mereka sejatinya bertanggung jawab?
 

Pertanyaan yang sering sekali saya dengar adalah, “Jadi, apa bedanya (mahasiswa) arsitektur dengan (mahasiswa) teknik sipil?”, yang dilanjutkan dengan, “Oh, jadi para insinyur sipil yang sebenarnya mengerti keterbangunan, para arsitek itu ‘tukang khayal’-nya saja ya?” Pandangan yang terlalu menyederhanakan masalah, walau tak bisa dikatakan salah. Jadi apa sebenarnya “arsitektur” itu?

Dalam proses pencarian jawaban ini, arsitektur terbukti memang sebuah disiplin yang tenggelam dalam dirinya sendiri. Seringkali merujuk pada dunia yang hanya dipercaya segelintir orang di dalamnya, ilmu ini sering dinilai eksklusif, sempit, dan picik. Keadaan ini merupakan sebuah cerminan akan besarnya jurang pemahaman antara masyarakat banyak dan mereka yang disebut ahli.

Adalah sebuah usaha yang menyegarkan ketika beberapa ”ahli” ini mencoba menjelaskan pengertian yang mereka percayai kepada masyarakat luas. Pengertian masyarakat luas pun dapat diartikan secara berbeda. Ada yang mengartikannya sebagai calon pengguna jasa, mereka yang secara profesional bersinggungan, para pembuat kebijakan, atau pihak paling mendekati ”awam” dalam keilmuan ini: para calon, dan yang sedang menjadi mahasiswa. Dalam kerangka inilah saya meletakkan buku terbaru Pursal, nama singkat dari Purnama Salura, yang berjudul Arsitektur yang Membodohkan.

Dari judulnya, buku ini sudah memperlihatkan pengaruh yang kuat dari strategi pemasaran anti-advertising sebagai sebuah jurus pengikat minat pembaca. Judul-judul bab di dalamnya juga memperlihatkan kemantapan terhadap pemilihan tema ini. Dengan berani, bab pertama diberi judul ”Bagaimana menghilangkan kewarasan ketika merancang arsitektur?”. Logika negatif yang diteruskan hingga bab  penutup, dengan judul ”Bagaimana menjadi arsitek yang membodohkan?“ Sayang, logika ini berhenti hanya sampai pada judul-judul tersebut. Sebagian besar buku ini tetap berisi argumentasi sang penulis tentang cita-citanya akan suatu arsitektur yang benar, bukan yang ”salah”, apalagi yang ”bodoh”. Jujur, karena harapan yang tak terpenuhi, saya merasa tertipu oleh judul buku ini. Bukankah akan amat menyenangkan bila benar ada seorang ”ahli”, yang sedemikian ahlinya sampai-sampai ia dapat membalik logika yang dipandang umum tentang bidang keahliannya? Mempertanyakan ”kebodohan” atas sesuatu yang dipandang bodoh, mempertanyakan ”kebenaran” akan sesuatu yang dianggap benar?

Lepas dari masalah harapan, adalah sebuah fakta bahwa buku ini mencoba memberikan pengertian terhadap betapa luasnya sebenarnya arsitektur dapat dipahami, hanya dengan menengok elemen-elemen yang terkait dengan objek yang disebut arsitektur itu sendiri dengan sedikit lebih seksama. Pengetahuan sang penulis yang luas terhadap topik-topik yang tersentuh dalam setiap bab yang dihadirkan dengan runut dan sederhana, membantu pemahaman pembaca yang ingin mengerti lebih dalam tentang ilmu arsitektur. Dengan menyederhanakan dan membuat ulang beberapa diagram dari para pemikir berpengaruh yang telah hadir sebelumnya, buku ini dapat dipandang sebagai sebuah rangkuman teori dan metode perancangan arsitektur.

Seluruh perjalanan buku ini dapat dijelaskan melalui satu diagram yang selalu Pursal tampilkan dalam variasi berbeda di awal setiap bab (Gambar 2). Lewat visualisasi ini, pola pikir yang mendasari seluruh buku, sekaligus pisau bedah yang ia pakai dihadirkan secara hampir telanjang. Hampir, karena masih ada kecenderungan untuk menghias segala yang tampak dengan ilustrasi-ilustrasi tokoh yang selalu muncul di buku ini, beserta pohon, meja, dan kursi; kartun yang saya asumsikan digambar oleh Pursal sendiri.

Lewat diagram ini saja, kita bisa mendapatkan jawaban mendasar Pursal atas batasan dan arti arsitektur. Ia meletakkan ”bangunan” di tengah. Arsitektur adalah bangunan dan segala yang mengelilinginya, membentuk sekaligus hadir karenanya. Panah bolak-balik dari, dan ke, ”bangunan”, menghubungkan ke apa yang ia sebut sebagai konteks: ”tempat”, ”perancang”, ”pemakai”, dan ”tempat”. Proses ini tidak satu arah, namun bolak-balik saling mempengaruhi.

Bab per bab, Pursal mengembangkan argumentasinya sedikit demi sedikit. Mulai dari konteks, guna, esensi, makna, kejujuran, alam, budaya, objektivitas, dan terakhir: praktik dari arsitektur. Dari pemaparan ini saja dapat terlihat, bahwa buku ini lahir dari cita-cita yang ambisius. Sebagai kitab yang diharapkan dapat memuat seluruh jurus ampuh untuk menghindari karya yang ”membodohkan”.

Melihat sedikit ke masa lalu, Pursal terbilang rajin menerbitkan pemikirannya dalam bentuk buku, termasuk ber-Arsitektur (Bandung: Swadaya, 2000) yang dapat dianggap sebagai pendahulu buku ini. Digabung dengan latar belakangnya sebagai seorang pengajar di Jurusan Arsitektur Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Bandung, tak heran bila narasi jurus demi jurus tersebut hadir. Intonasi menggurui, yang umumnya dimiliki para pengajar, dengan meletakkan pertanyaan sebagai judul bab, dan menyediakan rangkuman singkat sebagai jawaban pertanyaan tersebut di paragraf penutup setiap bab, jadi tak terhindarkan.

Masih berhubungan dengan menggurui, buku ini—seperti ber-Arsitektur yang mendahuluinya—memang terasa memilih untuk menjadikan para mahasiswa sebagai target pembaca utamanya. Gaya bertutur yang (semampunya) sederhana, (sedikit dipaksakan untuk) informal, penyajian yang penuh ilustrasi, dilengkapi dengan pertanyaan-pertanyaan pembuka bab yang nakal (dan kekanak-kanakan), menambah kesan ini (lihat judul-judul bab di Gambar 2).

Membayangkan diri saya kembali menjadi mahasiswa tingkat awal sebuah Jurusan Arsitektur sekarang, hadirnya buku ini dapat sangat membantu saya mengerti medan seperti apa yang akan saya arungi. Semua orang yang pernah menjadi mahasiswa arsitektur pasti tahu buku-buku tulisan Francis D.K. Ching, yang dari segi tampilan dan strategi percetakan (tak berwarna, dan berilustrasi garis, membuat buku ini mudah difotokopi—sebuah praktik mahasiswa untuk mengakali kehausan ilmu yang tak terhingga, namun tak disokong kemampuan membeli yang memadai), terlihat mempengaruhi buku Arsitektur yang Membodohkan. Hanya waktu dan usaha distribusi yang dapat membuktikan apakah buku ini dapat menjadi se-”wajib” buku-buku D.K. Ching. Namun, atas nama pengetahuan, saya setengah berharap masih menjadi mahasiswa ketika membaca buku ini.

Lalu, bagaimana bila seorang yang telah lulus dari sebuah sekolah arsitektur seperti saya membacanya sekarang? Dan mungkin yang lebih penting lagi: apakah buku ini dapat berbicara untuk kalangan yang lebih luas?

Kita bisa belajar dari karya-karya tulis yang berpengaruh dalam mengubah manusia memandang benda-benda terbangun di sekitar mereka sekaligus latar belakang kehadiran mereka, semisal Design for the Real World (Papanek, 1971) atau Cradle to Cradle (McDonough & Braungart, 2002), yang dapat berbicara ke khalayak luas karena menyentuh sesuatu yang menjadi perhatian bersama pada masa tertentu. Nada bicara yang mereka pakai sederhana tanpa menjadi menyederhanakan. Tema bentuk penulisan digunakan para penulisnya untuk membantu pemahaman para pembaca, tanpa sekalipun meragukan kecerdasan mereka, dan karenanya tidak terperangkap sendiri oleh strategi tersebut.

Sementara, ditilik dari teknik penulisannya, buku Arsitektur yang Membodohkan belum mencapai kualitas yang saya sebut di atas. Simak saja paragraf ini:

Masalahnya sekarang, jika kondisi yang ada di praktek ternyata banyak perkeliruan—gimana, dong?Apakah teori harus mengacu pada praktek? Baik kita pahami begini: teori harus punya relasi dengan praktek. Jika praktek sudah benar, teori akan memperkaya praktek. Jika praktek semrawut, teori harus memberikan contoh yang seharusnya alias contoh yang ideal. Mestinya gitu, kan? Dengan demikian praktek perlahan-lahan akan dapat berubah menuju ideal. Baik teori dan praktek keduanya harus saling mengisi dan memperbaiki diri. Mustinya begitu, kan? ­(h. 160)

Dengan materi pembahasan yang jauh dari keseharian, dan terkadang amat disederhanakan, saya ragu kalau orang awam akan tertarik untuk membaca buku ini sampai habis. Namun sebagai seseorang yang sudah melewati pendidikan sarjana dalam bidang arsitektur, buku ini bisa saya gunakan sebagai pengingat ulang atas beberapa aspek dasar keilmuan yang terlupakan. Di lain pihak, sebagai seseorang yang masih mencoba menularkan ketertarikan dalam bidang ini lewat jalur pendidikan, buku ini merupakan sebuah buku yang amat saya anjurkan untuk dibaca oleh para pelajar belia.

Kembali pada isi buku, dan sumbangan ilmu yang ditawarkannya, menurut saya, menjadi ”cerdas”, atau ”bodoh” itu dapat menjadi baik, ketika ia merupakan hasil dari pilihan, bukan ketidakpedulian. Mungkin pertanyaan pada judul tulisan ini yang salah. Yang lebih kita perlukan hari ini bukanlah ilmu arsitektur yang diperdebatkan dalam kerangka cerdas atau tidak. Yang jauh lebih mendesak saat ini adalah praktik atas ilmu arsitektur yang jujur, karena tidak ada yang lebih buruk daripada arsitektur yang membohongi.***

 

 

Farid Rakun adalah redaktur Karbonjournal.org




 


Gambar 1. Buku Arsitektur yang membodohkan.










Gambar 2. Bab-bab Arsitektur yang Membodohkan.
 

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